Russian nuclear-powered submarine decommissioning

Oleg Bukharin, Joshua Handler, "Russian nuclear-powered submarine decommissioning," Science & Global Security, 5, no. 2, (1995): 245-271.
Russia is facing technical, economic and organizational difficulties in dismantling its oversized and unsafe fleet of nuclear powered submarines. The inability of Russia to deal effectively with the submarine decommissioning crisis increases the risk of environmental disaster and may hamper the implementation of the START I and START II treaties. This paper discusses the nuclear fleet support infrastructure, the problems of submarine decommissioning, and recommends international cooperation in addressing these problems.

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