The Scope of Foreign Assistance to North Korea's Missile Program

Markus Schiller, "The Scope of Foreign Assistance to North Korea's Missile Program," Science & Global Security 27, no. 1 (2019): 29-72

There is evidence that North Korea's ballistic missile program benefited from support from the Soviet Union until its collapse and from Russia thereafter. Along with transfers of missile systems and rocket components, it appears that Russian engineers directly supported the program in North Korea. Analysis of missile launches, imagery, design solutions, and technology suggest that Pyongyang's recent missile program may have continued to have external support despite a pause in the 2000s. This assistance may have enabled the progress in North Korea's missile program leading to tests of an intercontinental range ballistic missile in 2017.

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