An atmospheric limit on nuclear-powered microwave weapons

Dan L Fenstermacher, Frank von Hippel, "An atmospheric limit on nuclear-powered microwave weapons," Science & Global Security, 2, no. 4, (1991): 301-324.
We present a simple model that predicts a limit to the microwave energy fluence (energy per unit area) that can propagate through the atmosphere and show that this limit falls within levels that can be shielded against. Within the relevant range of parameters, this model simplifies and extends results reported by Yee et al.1 to show explicitly the dependence of the breakdown time on microwave field strength and altitude above sea level.

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